Assignment 3- 12/4/11
- What is classical conditioning? How does conditioning work?
Classical conditioning is learning to substitute one stimulus for another stimulus by pairing a stimulus that is neutral with a stimulus that is natural. The mind will then perceive that the neutral stimulus will elicit the same response as the natural stimulus. A natural occurring event could happen at the same time that a neutral event happens and the mind perceives the neutral stimulus as the cause. Therefore you could use either stimulus to cause the same effect.
The mind will also expect the same scenario to be replayed. My mind used to do this with lightening. When I saw lightening my response was to cover my ears, close my eyes and pray because I expected the loud thunder to be next. The thunder did not happen every time, but my mind expected it every time.
My mind retrained itself during one night of driving. My children and I were traveling 400 miles and close to midnight was the most beautiful lightning storm. The lightening lit up the entire night sky over and over with not one clap of thunder. This went on for a couple of hours. My mind no longer expected the thunder after the lightening and did not elicit a scary response from me anymore.
This type of conditioning can be used to overcome fears or other emotions that interrupt your daily life. When these emotions are lifted confidence is born. You can get things accomplished
faster by removing procrastination causing obstacles. To me fear is a procrastinating causing obstacle. It took me all day once to build up the confidence to get a spider out of the bathtub to take a bath. With every emotion there is a healthy medium. I would not want to become over confident and become so friendly with spiders that I invited them to my home.
- How is learning possible?
Bottom up senses are the first time that you sense something. Bottom up senses are then stored into sensory memory. When you focus on that sensory information and how it relates to other things in your environment then it will be stored to the long-term memory. When the senses are stored in the long-term memory you can then bring it forward when needed and add to new incoming bottom up senses. You can choose to ignore or keep the new senses to go along with the stored ones. This is how to adapt to changes in surroundings. The more that you can associate to the senses that are stored into long-term memory the more you can choose the way you want to adapt to the environment at the moment. The mind will pick from past experiences what to bring to the short-term memory and what from the short- term memory to store into long-term memory.
Top down senses are stored in the long-term memory. You can perceive with Gestalt principals the whole picture without the whole picture being there. This sensing seems automatic. One plus one equals two you just seemingly know from now on without having to know why. You can get to this point different ways. One way is to repeatedly say one plus one
equals two over and over. This way is not the best way. It is better to learn that I have one apple and Sally gave me an apple, now I have two apples. Associate the numbers with tangible evidence. The mind will store this information and can go on further to next multiply and divide. Prove what you are saying to yourself and the mind will store this in long-term memory and recall when needed seemingly without thinking.
The mind can be tricked into thinking that you have proof when it could be an illusion and not real. The more tangible the evidence is for your mind the better when it comes to learning new material. Use all of your senses then apply them to your daily life. After doing this type of learning you can apply it to your life and solve problems seemingly without even trying to solve it. Hence the reason college algebra is taught to every professional even though math is not a routine part of their profession—- to be able to critically think solving problems easily while remaining stress free.
- Do you think memory editing is appropriate: Why or why not? If you were able to erase memories from your life, would you? Why or why not?
Memory editing is appropriate in most instances but not in some. It could be a great help to overcome fear or bad habits that are unhealthy or causing harm to oneself or others. Just
like anything else should only be in the hands of qualified personal to regulate and determine use of the product. It is only in experimental stages with mice now. So I feel it would be years from now before it would be for use in humans. By this time, it would be declared safe and not harmful for use.
My fears and bad habits are not that out of control to cause harm to myself or others so for me personally I would not want to use this product. I would like to use it on someone that is cutting their self-up with a knife. Or someone that is causing great harm to self or others.
Before it is made available for use I would also highly consider making it possible to fill in the memory with a memory replacement. This way you would not leave it up to the person that wants to cause harm to self and others to maybe replace that behavior with an even worse behavior. Offer the person a choice though of what memory replacement they would like. Memory editing could become a cure for all types of addictions and harmful thoughts.
- Do you think it is ethical for scientists to conduct memory research? Why or why not?
Memory research is ethical. These researchers could benefit society greatly. It would have to be regulated to not be used in the wrong way or out of a controlled environment. Using this as a memory enhancer to make better choices and judgments and such would not be wise. Your mind can only handle so many memories and thoughts without decreasing
other things about your health. I believe some would use it as a habit/addiction in itself but with everything there are those that do such. Coffee drinkers, smokers, alcoholics, OCD, over eaters, over counter medications, prescribed medications, gambling………….Each person chooses their own vice and decides when it is out of control. This memory editing could then repair the out of control vice and life better for that individual and society, so yes this is ethical.
To have it uncontrolled would be unethical. In the wrong hands for wrong reasons could create a monster for the reasons I spoke of in my discussion paper. Some people have wrong desires. Some people desire world domination and mass murder. The memory eraser could wipe out bad morals and good morals. This would be very dangerous to society. This would need to be regulated and monitored closely.
- Explain each stage of cognitive development. Provide specific examples of development in each stage.
The first stage of cognitive development is sensorimotor stage. Children at this stage are using bottom up sensing for almost everything. If they do not see it feel it hear it in the immediate environment, they do not consider objects permanent. The long-term memory has not developed enough yet to do much top down sensing. It is best to tell the truth and explain things
to them correctly without trying to trick or bribe them to do something at this stage. The reason is because they are storing what you say to them in long term memory to be able to go further with their learning at a later time. When the child learns the truth of the matter could become hurt and angry with whoever tricked them. The emotion will be into the long-term memory the automatic type to where they do not even realize the cause. Most likely will not even know or realize who tricked them and just harbor these emotions without ever quite realizing why or how.
The second stage of cognitive development is the pre-operational stage. This stage children use symbolic thinking. The top down senses are being used with the bottom up senses in an egocentric way. The child now realizes that an object could be hidden and when wanting the object searches. They will do things and say things to be happy with themselves. The children are basically testing their environment on their own to discover what’s real and what makes them happy. Imagination and pretend are everywhere. Through play will role model the adults in their environment. Children learn to develop senses to learn why the adults are doing what they do. It is important to let these children know good behavior vs. bad behavior in a positive way. Let them discover that things break this is a part of life. Discover that things do hurt and it’s ok to be sad sometimes or mad.
The third stage is the concrete operational stage. Children are logical but do not think outside the box yet. This stage will include a million and one questions on everything. It’s best not to get annoyed with their questions while they are thinking now logically. If these questions go unanswered they will tend to put their own assumptions into the equation. Then during the next stage when they can think outside the box will be making more wrong choices than right choices. Children at this stage welcome advice to how to handle peer pressure and wrong and right choices.
The fourth stage is the formal operational stage. Children at this stage can now think outside the box and will think outside the box no matter how ready they are too. Given good advice in the previous stage and good role models is key for them making good decisions now. They will learn on their own from now on and a lot of it is going to be the hard way with less good teaching and role modeling prior to this stage. Let them know before this stage that if you steal is bad and against the law and burglars go to jail. If they have not been told this before now they might actually steal and go to jail learning this the hard way. It seems to the adult
- Do you agree with Piaget’s theory? Why or why not?
Yes, I agree with Piaget’s theory most of it. I do not agree with the ages being the same with every child. Every child is different and depends on the sensing from environment to develop these stages. Some children reach a stage faster or slower than others. Not only does environment affect the stage process but also nutrition and health.
Griggs, R. (2012). Psychology: A Concise Introduction, Third Edition. Worth publishers. Chapter 7 Developmental Psychology (246-286)
An Overview of Moral Development and Moral Education, http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd/overviewtext.html , retrieved 22 November 2011.